Six years later, the older generation of nuclear power stations were transferred into another state-owned company, while a new private company called British Energy stepped forward to take over the eight most modern nuclear power plants in the UK. As British Energy took over its ready-built assets, it announced it would let the planning consent for Hinkley Point C lapse. Taking over existing nuclear power stations made financial sense; taking on the eyewatering costs of building new ones did not.
The current nuclear power stations would run until the end of their projected lifespans, and then something else would have to close the gap.
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But soon after its privatisation in , British Energy began to run into financial problems. When it delivered its report in February , the message was clear: By the end of , all government policy indicated that Hinkley Point C would never be built, and there was no prospect of any other new nuclear power plants. It seemed certain that nuclear had no future in Britain — which is why, when the government performed a volte-face three years later, so many onlookers were astonished.
Through the media and advertising campaigns, key messages were hammered home. Renewables were intermittent and unreliable. Overseas gas imports were politically vulnerable. Keith Parker, who was then chief executive of the Nuclear Industry Association NIA , told the New Statesman that the election became a particular focus for swaying opinions.
Industry leaders and experts came together to explain the benefits of nuclear to politicians and energy journalists. The NIA which is now chaired by John Hutton took on the role of managing the influential all-party parliamentary group — an informal grouping of politicians — on nuclear energy. In July , the government U-turn arrived in the form of a new policy paper, The Energy Challenge , which declared that new nuclear power stations would be necessary to help Britain reduce its carbon emissions and to ensure an uninterrupted, affordable supply of energy well into the future.
In other words, no new nuclear power plants would spell the end of Trident. Building nuclear submarines is a ferociously complicated business. It requires the kind of institutional memory and technical expertise that can easily disappear without practice. This, in theory, is where the civil nuclear industry comes in. If new nuclear power plants are being built, then the skills and capacity required by the military will be maintained. When Gordon Brown took over from Blair in June , the shift to nuclear proceeded apace.
In January , the announcement came.
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A new generation of nuclear power stations in the UK was given formal backing by the government. J ust as it looked like Hinkley Point C would go ahead, the banking crisis erupted. The private companies, such as E. ON and Centrica, which had previously expressed interest in funding the new nuclear power plants, pulled out.
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If the UK government wanted to go ahead, it would have to pay for the power plants itself. This was a complete departure from its previous insistence that the private sector would shoulder both the development costs and risk. Despite the financial chaos, the government was still determined to make Hinkley work. The key piece of the jigsaw was British Energy. The company, which had been pulled back from near-collapse by the government in , owned many of the best sites for building new nuclear power stations.
If the government wanted private companies to build nuclear power stations, it would have to sell British Energy to one of the companies. EDF was the best bet. It also announced its plan to develop four new power stations. These days, EDF looks like an unlikely white knight. Because many of the 58 nuclear reactors in France were built in the s, they are now reaching the end of their lifespan simultaneously. The Flamanville reactor is a new European pressurised reactor EPR , the same troublesome design that is planned for Hinkley.
Given its commitment to building Hinkley Point C, the government had no choice but to make EDF an offer that was too good to resist. It offered to guarantee EDF a fixed price for each unit of energy produced at Hinkley for its first 35 years of operation. One MWh is roughly equivalent to the electricity used by around homes in one hour.
However, because it is linked to inflation, the strike price has already risen since Given that almost every taxpayer in the UK is an electricity consumer, the distinction is largely academic. Furthermore, people in a lower tax bracket often use a similar amount of electricity to higher earners, effectively creating a regressive tax.
A spokesperson from EDF told me: The deal looks particularly bad when compared with the current cost of renewable energy. And, as a recent report from the public accounts committee pointed out, although energy costs are falling, this just drives up the top-up payment to EDF.
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The most comprehensive data are those gathered by the United Nations Population Division on the basis of demographic statistics provided by each country and a patient labour of homogenisation. They serve to indicate the trend of the migratory flows entering and leaving the different countries in the world; they also include the sensitive issue of the World Population Prospects established for the decades to come.
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If we consider the most recent data available, two facts clearly stand out. In the first instance, the migratory flows entering the rich countries net of outflows have fallen since From to they stood at approximately 2 million persons per year, from to at 2.
This means that the migratory flow was below 0. These flows may seem minuscule and, in a way, they are: The difference however is that the new migratory flows lead to greater multicultural exchanges involving people of different cultural origins whereas in the past the migratory flows were primarily internal to the North Atlantic and that these migratory flows take place in a context of demographic stagnation: This means that an annual contribution of 0.
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