Box Plot — it is a type of graph used to summarize continuous or discretes quantitatives variables, giving an idea of central tendence, dispersion, symmetry and outliers Mattos et al. Dispersion Diagram - it is widely used to allow a first assessment, albeit superficial, the relationship between two variables Mattos et al.
Hypoteses Test — it is an inferential statistical technique that aims to provide a methodology to assess whether sample data provide evidence supporting or not a hypothesis formulated Bussab et Morettin, This hypothesis is an assumption about some property of a probability distribution. Design of Experiments — is a test or series of tests, in which the input variables of a system are manipulated to be identified the reasons for the changes in output variables Montgomery , Statistical Process Control - enables to characterize and monitor the quality characteristics of interest, ensuring their maintenance within predefined limits, indicating when to take correction and improvement actions.
Allows the systematic reduction of variability in the quality characteristics in an effort to improve the intrinsic quality, productivity and reliability than is being produced or provided, being operated by control charts Henning et al. A program that has been widely used and employs a multitude of statistical techniques, basing itself on its principles, is the Seis Sigma. It is characterized as an improvement program that aims to reduce waste of non quality and, consequently, reducing costs and improving service customer requirements, such as product quality and delivery reliability.
It is related to the capability of processes Carpinetti, According with Maekawa et al.watch
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This research is qualitative and quantitative exploratory nature. The provision of information of a certified company on this site can take up to 40 days. For this study, the search was conducted in April , been identified only five companies in the cities of Rio Grande and Pelotas. However, one of the companies did not provide your information. Data collection was done through two instruments.
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Initially was a semi-structured interview with the head of the certification process before the Inmetro or someone appointed by him, where they sought information about the company and its certification process: At the end was given to the respondent a second instrument, an adapted translation of the instrument proposed by Singh et Smith , to be answered within a maximum of one week term. This instrument aims to measure the quality of management on three approaches: Featuring items that include the following factors: Factors addressed by the items of the instrument Factors.
Circle the degree of agreement that best reflects the current situation in your organization: Circle how the organization is currently being affected by the following business environment factors: Circle the satisfaction of the organization that best reflects your current situation 1 Very good; 2 Satisfactory; 3 Neutral; 4 Unsatisfactory; 5 Very poor; 6 Not applicable.
Relationship with the community. The various items, the expected responses by indicating the adoption of quality philosophy in their practices, associated with the alternative 1 are: This instrument has been validated through various tests of reliability and validity, based on results from a survey carried out among Australian organizations. The organization and data analysis were carried out in two stages. The first was given a transcript of the recordings of the interviews, followed by a systematization of information. In the second, which deals with information obtained about the management systems, the information provided by those responsible for quality management in each company were organized in tables with absolute frequencies and percentages.
These were built according to five levels defined in the instrument can vary from strongly agree 1 and strongly disagree 5 , between very positively 1 and very negative 5 or between very good 1 and very poor 5 , and does not apply 6. A similar procedure was carried out with items related to each of the 13 factors mentioned above, as well as every type of management: This treatment is also applied to the data by factor and type of management.
More details on this non-parametric statistical evidence can be found in Siegel et Castellan The four investigated companies are presented below, as well as a brief report of some important points covered in the interviews. The A company operates in the trading industry for 20 years and also produces handled products. Currently has 70 employees, using consultancy services only in special situations.
The interviewee, Quality and Improvements Manager, has a degree in Business Administration and holds the position for 11 years, the same time engaged in this company.
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In the search for an effective management system and also for a competitive edge, in , they were looking for the ISO certification. The implementation time was about four months, necessitating a consulting service. In this process were involved management, managers and other employees who participated in training to ensure adaptation to new methodologies. The main advantage of certification is quoted process control achieved through a systemic view to adopting a management based on monitoring with the use of indicators, and a constant quest for continuous improvement.
Its main recommendation for those who want certification is the realization that this process requires an initial investment, involving everyone, not providing immediate feedback. Certification renewal was not necessary to use consulting service.
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The B company operates in the sector of services in various segments for 20 years, has around employees and uses consulting service only in special situations. The interviwee holds the position of Quality Coordinator for seven years, the same time engaged in the company, and a postgraduate degree in Project Management.
In , it certified its quality management system ISO , keeping your company status certified until today. This search occurred as required by the main customer. After a first failed attempt, was hired a person to manage the process and the certification was obtained in about seven months. The interviwee considers that the advantages obtained with the certification are great, especially the organization of processes. For a company that wants to get it, considers it essential the involvement of senior management and the availability of time and resources. The C company is providing service for 14 years and has a policy of integrated and sustainable management.
Currently has employees and uses consulting services in several areas. One of the interviewees, who holds the position of Sustainability Coordinator for two years, has a degree in Biology and Chemistry Engineering, while the other, who holds the position of Sustainability Analyst for one year, holds a degree in Accounting. The interviewees did not work in the company at the time of this certification, but the information we have is that this time there was a culture of break: Currently, the quality culture in the company is evident.
In also obtained the ISO certification as benefits provided by the certification are identified: Recommend to a company that wants to get certified, do it as a managerial differential and not just for obtaining the seal. The D company operates in the Industry and Trade sector, completing 75 years of operation.
Currently has employees, besides using consulting services in several areas. One of the interviewees, who holds the position of Health Coordinator, safety, environment and quality for 3 years, is a graduate in Chemical Engineering with a postgraduate degree in Occupational Safety Engineering, while the other holds the position of Technical Quality Standards Senior just six months ago and has a degree in Chemical Engineering.
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The interviwees indicated a critical moment after the certification due to lack of communication between the sectors and certain resistance to accept the culture of quality. Recommend for companies that wish to obtain certification, the need for planning and dedication. In view of the above it appears that most of the companies investigated are young three of them have between 14 and 20 years and has ISO certification for a relatively long time between 2 and 11 years compared to their lifetime.
In general, they have around employees, use of consultancy services and those responsible for quality management have a good academic background. Interestingly, the oldest company 75 years is the one that is certified for less time two years. It was achieved on the first attempt in three of the four companies investigated. All companies agree that the certification process is not easy and requires hard work, dedication, persistence, and the involvement of all.
All consider that they have obtained positive results with the ISO certification process, particularly those arising from the organization of processes, and advise companies to seek it as a managerial differential. These findings agree with the results of Maekawa et al. Most of the investigated companies also is certified by other standards, disagreeing with the findings of Maekawa et al. Board 2 shows the quality tools used in their management practices. It is observed that the qualitative tools, among which are Diagram Cause and Effect and 5S, are the most used, agreeing with Maekawa et al.
This board also shows the limited use of statistical techniques, and Diagram Pareto and Histogram, extremely basic graphic techniques, the most used. These findings agree with those reported by Oliveira et al. Diagram of Causes and Effects. Distribution of responses by company Responses. These results suggest that the companies A and C meet more fully the requirements. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test confirms these findings, it is evidence that the distributions of the scores given to items for each of the four companies do not come from the same populations with the same median.
Please note that Company B has also provided many answers associated with the score 3 Neutral , while companies C and D have left many items unanswered or felt it does not apply. The findings suggest that Company D has a less appropriate behavior according to the requisites of quality. By comparing the responses given by companies to items related to different types of management: According to the data presented in Table 2, items related to standards-based management were more closely associated with score 1 strongly agree, very positively or very satisfactory , corresponding to Items related to management based on awards were more associated with the score 2 agree, positively or satisfactory , corresponding to These results show that, according to those responsible for quality management, companies meet more the requisites of quality, in items related to standards-based management, which is relevant to the requirements of the certification obtained.
For management based on basic knowledge, the percentage of items associated with scores 1 and 2 were very similar: Distribution of responses per company for the different types of management Management.
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Based on elementary knowledge. By applying the Kruskal-Wallis test data of each company, it is found evidence that the distributions of the scores given to the items do not come from the identical populations with the same median for the responses provided by the representatives of the companies B and C. In company B, although a larger quantity of items received score 2 agree, positively or satisfactory for all types of management Interestingly, the company C, a greater amount of items has been associated with a score 1 strongly agree, very positively or very satisfactory for all forms of management These findings show that although the companies do not use many programs and quality tools, especially the quantitatives that involve statistical method, its QMS have a reasonable performance, especially on questions relating to compliance standards.
In all companies the findings indicate that certification brings good results, especially from a technical point of view. There is a consensus among interviwee that the certified company works better, more organized and transparent manner, according to several studies already developed. However, they do not seem very sure of improved economic performance, as expressed concern about the quality costs.
Those informations agree with Pinto which shows that many certified companies do not renew the certification for failing to improve their economic performance, and suggest that should remain with the certification only if it is a requirement of their customers. For Stevenson et Barnes , however, some studies indicate that some companies have been able to benefit in terms of profitability, communications, operations and market expansion. In this context, statistical techniques, so rarely used according to the respondents of this research can play an important role in the evaluation and control processes, assisting decision-making based on evidence and contributing to the success of the QMS.
Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade em Empresas do Extremo Sul do RS | mattos | Sistemas & Gestão
Procedia Economics and Finance Volume 37 , , Pages Under a Creative Commons license. Abstract The existence of learning organization culture has been proven to influence growth and development of an organization.
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