FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient


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Pictures of the Day: Never-seen-before images of the last indigenous communities of the world Premium. The spectacular winning images in the Landscape Photographer of the Year contest. Life of President George H. Bush, in pictures Premium. Yellow vest protesters clash with police in France, in pictures. Last minute gift guide: The best sequinned party outfits to buy now. Sponsored What goes into your beauty products?

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Malik that the Prophet may peace and blessings be upon him observed: It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Prophet may peace blessings be upon him observed: By Him in whose Hand is my life, no, bondsman truly believes till he likes for his neighbour, or he the Holy Prophet said: It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessing be upon him observed: He will not enter Paradise whose neighbour is not secure from his wrongful conduct. It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him observed: He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should either utter good words or better keep silence; and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day should treat his neighbour with kindness and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day should show hospitality to his guest.

It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: He who believes in Allah and the Last Day does not harm is neighbour, and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day shows hospitality to his guest and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day speaks good or remains silent. Another hadith similar to one narrated above by Abu Husain is also reported by Abu Huraira with the exception of these words: He should do good to the neighbour. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Shuraih al-Khuzai' that the Prophet may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him observed: He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should do good to his neighbour and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day should show hospitality to the guest and he who believes in Allah and the Last Day should either speak good or better remain silent.

It is narrated on the authority of Tariq b. It was Marwan who initiated the practice of delivering khutbah address before the prayer on the 'Id day. A man stood up and said: Prayer should precede khutbah. He Marwan remarked, This practice has been done away with. Upon this Abu Sa'id remarked: This man has performed his duty laid on him. I heard the Messenger of Allah as saying: He who amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his tongue, and if he has not strength enough to do it, even then he should abhor it from his heart, and that is the least of faith.

The same hadith of the Holy Prophet may peace and blessings be upon him has been reported by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri in connection with the story of Marwan. It is narrated on the authority 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: Never a Prophet had been sent before me by Allah towards his nation who had not among his people his disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who said whatever they did not practise, and practised whatever they were not commanded to do.

He who strove against them with his hand was a believer: I narrated this hadith to 'Abdullah b. There happened to come 'Abdullah b.


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Mas'ud who stayed at Qanat, and 'Abdullah b 'Umar wanted me to accompany him for visiting him as 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud was ailing , so I went along with him and as we sat before him I asked Ibn Mas'ud about this hadith. He narrated it in the same way as I narrated it to Ibn 'Umar. The same hadith has been transmitted by another chain of narrators on the authority of 'Abdullah b.

Never was there one among the prophets who had had not disciples who followed his direction and followed his ways. The remaining part of the hadith is like that as narrated by Salih but the arrival of Ibn Mas'ud and the meeting of Ibn 'Umar with him is not mentioned. It is narrated on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud that the Apostle of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him pointed towards Yemen with his hand and said: Verily Iman is towards this side, and harshness and callousness of the hearts is found amongst the rude owners of the camels who drive them behind their tails to the direction where emerge the two horns of Satan, they are the tribes of Rabi'a and Mudar.

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah observed: There have come the people of Yemen; they are tender of hearts, the belief is that of the Yemenites, the understanding of the faith is that of the Yemenites and sagacity is that of the Yemenites. Abu Huraira reported the same hadith which is transmitted to us by another chain of transmitters, e. Yusuf Azraq, Ibn 'Aun, etc. The Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: There came to you the people from Yemen; they are tender of hearts and mild of feelings, the understanding is Yemenite, the sagacity is Yemenite.

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him remarked: The summit of unbelief is towards the East and the pride and conceitedness is found among the owners of horses and camels who are rude and uncivil, people of the tents, and tranquillity is found among those who rear goats and sheep.

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: The belief is among the Yemenites, and the unbelief is towards the East, and tranquillity is among those who rear goats and sheep, and pride and simulation is among the uncivil and rude owners of horses and camels. I heard the Messenger of Allah saying this: Pride and conceitedness is found among the uncivil owners of the camels and tranquillity is found among the owners of sheep and goats. The same hadith has been narrated by Zuhri with the same chain of authorities with the addition: The belief is among the Yemenites, the sagacity is that of the Yemenites.

I heard the Prophet may peace and blessings be upon him saying: There came the people of Yemen, they are tender of feelings and meek of hearts. The belief is that of the Yemenites, the sagacity is that of the Yemenites, the tranquillity is among the owners of goats and sheep, and pride and conceitedness is among the uncivil owners of the camels, the people of the tents in the direction of sunrise.

It is reporter on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: There came the people of Yemen who are soft of hearts, tender in feelings: Sa'id and Zubair b. Jarir narrated this on the authority of A'mash with the same chain of narrators as mentioned above. Shu'ba narrated the hadith as reported by Jarir with the same chain of narrators with this addition: Pride and conceitedness is among the owners of the camels and tranquillity and sobriety is found amongst the owners of sheep. It is reported on the authority of Jabir b.

Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah may peace and, blessings be upon him observed: The callousness of heart and sternness is in the East and faith is among the people of the Hijaz. The Messenger of Allah may peace and blessing be upon him observed: You shall not enter Paradise so long as you do not affirm belief in all those things which are the articles of faith and you will not believe as long as you do not love one another.

Should I not direct you to a thing which, if you do, will foster love amongst you: Jarir reported on the authority of A'mash with this chain of transmitters that the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him observed: By him in Whose hand is my life, you shall not enter Paradise unless you believe. The rest of the hadith is the same as narrated by Abd Mu'awiya and Waki'. It is narrated on the authority of Tamim ad-Dari that the Apostle of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: Al-Din is a name of sincerity and well wishing.

Upon this we said: Hatim and others narrate the same hadith of the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him on the authority of Tamim ad-Dari. Bistam narrates the same hadith of the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him on the authority of Tamim ad-Dari.

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It is narrated on the authority of Jarir that he observed I gave pledge of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him on the observance of prayer, payment of Zakat, and sincerity and well-wishing for every Muslim. Sufyan narrated on the authority of Ziyad b. I pledged allegiance to the Apostle of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him on sincerity and well-wishing for every Muslim. It is narrated on the authority of Jarir that he observed: I owed allegiance to the Apostle of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him on hearing is commands and obeying them and the Prophet instructed me to act as lay in my power, and sincerity and goodwill for every Muslim.

Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah observed: The fornicator who fornicates is not a believer so long as he commits it and no thief who steals is a believer as long as he commits theft, and no drunkard who drinks wine is a believer as long as he drinks it. Abi Bakr' narrated this on the authority of Abu Bakr b.

Harith and then said: Abu Huraira made this addition: No plunderer who plunders a valuable thing that attracts the attention of people is a believer so long as he commits this act. Shu'aib narrated this hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira that he observed: The Messenger of Allah said that a fornicator does not fornicate, and then narrated the hadith like this, and he also made mention of plundering too, but did not mention of a thin having value.

Mihran narrates this hadith on the authority of Abu Huraira and made mention of plundering but did not talk of a thing having value. It is reported on the authority of Qutaiba b. Sa'id who reported on the authority of Abu Huraira the hadith like that narrated from Zuhri with this exception that in the hadith narrated by 'Ala ' and Safwan b. Sulaim there is no mention of: People raise there eyes towards him, and in the hadith narrated by Hammam: The believers raise their eyes towards him, and such like words, so long as he plunders is not a believer, and these words were added: And no exploiter who makes an exploitation is a believer as long as he exploits It; therefore avoid and shun these evils.

A fornicator who fornicates is not a believer as long as he commits fornication, and no one who steals is a believer as long as he commits theft, and no one who drinks wine is a believer as long as he drinks it, and repentance may be accepted after that. It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Four characteristics made anyone who possessed them, a sheer hypocrite; anyone who possessed one of them possessed a characteristic of hypocrisy till be abandons it: It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him said: Three are the signs of a hypocrite: Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: There are three characteristics of a hypocrite: Mukarram al-'Ami reported that he heard 'Ala' b.

Three are the signs of a hypocrite, even if he observed fast and prayed and asserted that he was a Muslim. It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him made observations like them embodied in the hadith narrated by Yahya b. Muhammad on the authority of 'Ala', and added to it: It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him observed: When a man calls his brother an unbeliever, it returns at least to one of them. It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him said: Any person who called his brother: If it were so, as he asserted then the unbelief of man was confirmed but if it was not true , then it returned to him to the man who labeled it on his brother Muslim.

It is reported on the authority of Abu Dharr that he heard the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him saying: No person who claimed knowingly anyone else as his father besides his own committed nothing but infidelity, and he who made a claim of anything, which in fact did not belong to him, is not amongst us; he should make his abode in Fire, and he who labeled anyone with unbelief or called him the enemy of Allah, and he was in fact not so, it rebounded on him. Do not detest your fathers; he who detested his father committed infidelity.

It is reported on the authority of Sa'd b. Both of my ears heard the Messenger of Allah saying this: He who claimed the fatherhood of anyone else besides his real father knowingly committed a great sin ;Paradise is forbidden to him. Abu Bakra asserted that he too heard it from the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him. Sa'd and Abu Bakra each one of them said: My ears heard and my hearing preserved it that Muhammad peace and blessings be upon him observed: He who claimed for another one his fatherhood besides his own father knowingly that he was not his father-to him Paradise is forbidden.

Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and fighting against him is unbelief. I asked Abu Wa'il: Did you hear it from Abdullah narrating if from the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him? But there is mention of the talk between Zubaid and Abu Wa'il in the hadith narrated by Shu'ba. Abu Shaiba narrated a hadith like this from the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him on the authority of Abdullah.

It is narrated on the authority of Jarir b. Do not return to unbelief after me by striking the necks of one another. Mu'adh narrated from the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him a hadith like this on the authority on Ibn Umar. Umar that the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him observed on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage Woe unto you distress unto you! Don't turn back as unbelievers after me by striking the necks of one another. Muhammad, Ibn Umar narrated like the hadith reported by Shu'ba on the authority of Waqid.

Two things are found among men which are tantamount to unbelief: It is narrated on the authority of Jarir that he heard the Holy Prophet saying, The slave who fled from his master committed an act of infidelity as long as he would not return to him. By God, this hadith was narrated from the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him , but I do not like that this should be narrated on my authority here in Basra.

It is narrated on the authority of Jarir that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observed: The slave who fled from his master, responsibility with regard to him was absolved. Abdullah reported it from the Holy Prophet: When the slave runs away from his master, his prayer is not accepted. It is narrated on the authority of Zaid b. The Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him led the morning prayer at Hudaybiya.

There were some marks of the rainfall during the night. At the conclusion of prayer he turned towards people and observed: Do you know what your Lord has said? Some of My bondsmen entered the morning as My believers and some as unbelievers. We have had a rainfall due to the Blessing and Mercy of Allah, he is My believer and a disbeliever of stars, and who said: We have had a rainfall due to the rising of such and such star disbelieved Me and affirmed his faith in the stars. Don't you know what your Lord said?

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I have never endowed My bondsmen with a favor, but a section amongst them disbelieved it and said: Stars, it was due to the stars. It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessing be upon him observed: Allah does not shower His blessings from the heaven that in the morning a group of men disbelieve it to be a blessing from Allah.

Allah sends down rain, but they the disbelievers say: Such and such star is responsible for that. It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that there was once a downpour during the life of the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him Upon this the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him observed: Some people entered the morning with gratitude and some with ingratitude to Allah. Those who entered with gratitude said: This is the blessing of Allah, and those who entered with ingratitude said: Such and such asterism was right. It was upon this that the verse was revealed:.

I swear by the setting of the stars to the end and make your provision that you should disbelieve it. It is reported on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings Be upon him observed: The sign of a hypocrite is the hatred against the Ansar and the sign of a believer is the love for the Ansar. It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him said: The love of the Ansar is the sign of faith and hatred against them is the sign of dissemblance.

Al-Bara reported it from the Apostle may peace and blessing be upon him that he observed with regard to the Ansar, None but the believer loves them, none but the hypocrite hates them. He who loved them loved Allah and he who hated them hated Allah. Did you hear this hadith from al-Bara'? Umar that the Messenger of Allah observed: O womenfolk, you should give charity and ask much forgiveness for I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell.

A wise lady among them said: Why is it, Messenger of Allah, that our folk is in bulk in Hell? Upon this the Holy Prophet observed: You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. I have seen none lacking in common sense and failing in religion but at the same time robbing the wisdom of the wise, besides you. Upon this the woman remarked: What is wrong with our common sense and with religion?

He the Holy Prophet observed: Your lack of common sense can be well judged from the fact that the evidence of two women is equal to one man, that is a proof of the lack of common sense, and you spend some nights and days in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramadan during the days you do not observe fast, that is a failing in religion. This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Tahir with this chain of transmitters. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that when, the son of Adam recites the Ayat of Sajdah prostration and then falls down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and weeps and says: Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and am doomed to Hell.

A'mash narrated this hadith with the same chain of transmitters, with this change of words that he the Satan said: I disobeyed and I am doomed to Hell. It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that he heard the Apostle may peace and blessings be upon him saying. Verily between man and between polytheism and unbelief is the negligence of prayer. It is narrated on the authority of Abu Zubair that he heard Jabir b.

I heard the Messenger of Allah may peace and blessings be upon him observing this: Between man and polytheism and unbelief is the abandonment of salat.

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The Messenger of Allah was asked about the best of deeds. Jihad struggle to the utmost in the cause of Allah. Pilgrimage accepted into the grace of the Lord. Ja'far the words are that he the Holy Prophet said: Belief in Allah and His Messenger. Rafi and 'Abd b. Humaid, 'Abdur-Razzaq and Ma'mar and Zuhri have narrated a hadith like this on the authority of the same chain of transmitters.

Messenger of Allah, which of the deeds is the best? Belief in Allah and Jihad in His cause. Who is the slave whose emancipation is the best? One who is valuable for his master and whose price is high. If I can't afford to do it? Help an artisan or make anything for the unskilled labourer. I Abu Dharr said: Messenger of Allah, you see that I am helpless in doing some of these deeds. Desist from doing mischief to the people.

That is the charity of your person on your behalf. Abu Rafi' narrated the hadith on the authority of Abu Dharr with a slight difference. Mas'ud that he observed. I asked the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him which deed was the best. Prayer at its appointed hour. Kindness to the parents. Earnest endeavour Jihad in the cause of Allah. And I would have not ceased asking more questions but out of regard for his feelings.

Messenger of Allah, which of the deeds takes one nearer to Paradise? Prayer at its proper time, I said: What next, Messenger of Allah? Jihad in the cause of Allah. It was heard from Abu 'Amr Shaibani that, pointing towards the house of Abdullah, he said: The owner of this house told me that he asked the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him: Which of the deeds are liked by Allah?

Prayer at its proper time. Then goodness to the parents. Then Jihad in the cause of Allah. This is what I was told by the Holy Prophet. Had I questioned further, he would have made additions for me. This hadith has been transmitted by Muhammad b. Ja'far Shu'ba with this chain of narrators, with the addition that he pointed towards the house of 'Abdullah, but he did not mention his name for us.

It is reported on the authority of 'Abdullah that the Apostle of Allah observed: The best of' the deeds or deed is the observance of prayer at its proper time and kindness to the parents. I asked the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him: Which sin is the gravest in the eye of Allah? That you associate a partner with Allah despite the fact that He has created you. He the reporter said: I told him the, Holy Prophet: Verily it is indeed grave. I asked him what the next gravest sin was. That you kill your child out of fear that he shall join you in food.

Then the next gravest sin is that you commit adultery with the wife of your neighbour. Mas'ud that a man said: Messenger of Allah, which offence is the most grievous in the eye of Allah? That you associate a partner with Allah despite the fact that He created you. He the man said: That you kill your child out of fear that he would join you in food. He the inquirer said again: That you commit adultery with the wife of your neighbour.

And the Almighty and Exalted Lord testified it with this verse:. All those who call not unto another god along with Allah, and slay not any soul which Allah has forbidden, except in the cause of justice, nor commit fornication, and he who does this shall meet a requital of sin xxv. It is narrated on the authority of 'Abdur-Rahman b. Abu Bakra that his father said: We were in the company of the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him that he observed: Should I not inform you about the most grievous of the grave sins? The Holy Prophet repeated it three times, and then said: Associating anyone with Allah, disobedience to parents, false testimony or false utterance.

The Holy Prophet was reclining, then he sat up, and he repeated it so many times that we wished that he should become silent. Anas narrated from the Apostle may peace be upon him about the major sins. Associating anyone with Allah, disobedience to parents, killing a person and false utterance. I heard Anas b. The Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him talked about the major sins, or he was asked about the major sins. Upon this he observed: Associating anyone with Allah, killing of a person, disobedience to parents. He the Holy Prophet further said: Should I not inform you about the gravest of the major sins, and in this connection observed: False utterance or false testimony.

It was most probably" false testimony". Avoid the seven noxious things. It was said by the hearers: What are they, Messenger of Allah? Associating anything with Allah, magic, killing of one whom God has declared inviolate without a just cause, consuming the property of an orphan, and consuming of usury, turning back when the army advances, and slandering chaste women who are believers, but unwary.

Abusing one's parents is one of the major sins. They the hearers said: Messenger of Allah, does a man abuse his parents too? Yes, one abuses the father of another man, who in turn abuses his father. One abuses his mother and he in turn abuses his the former's mother. This hadith has also been transmitted on the authority of Sa'd b.

Ibrahim with this chain of narrators. It Is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud that the Apostle of Allah may peace be upon him , observed: He who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise. A person amongst his hearers said: Verily a person loves that his dress should be fine, and his shoes should be fine.

Verily, Allah is Graceful and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth out of self-conceit and contempt for the people. Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him observed: None shall enter the Fire of Hell who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of Iman and none shall enter Paradise who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride. It is narrated on the authority of 'Abdullah that the Apostle of Allah may peace be upon him observed: He who as in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise.

I heard the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him saying: He who dies associating anything with Allah would enter the Fire of Hell. I say that he who died without associating anything with Allah entered Paradise. It is narrated on the authority of Jabir that a man came to the Apostle of Allah may peace be upon him and said: Messenger of Allah, what are the two things quite unavoidable?

He who dies without associating anyone with Allah would necessarily enter Paradise and he who dies associating anything with Allah would enter the Fire of Hell. It is narrated on the authority of Jabir b. He who met Allah without associating anything with Allah entered Paradise and he who met Him associating anything with Him entered Fire.

The same hadith has been narrated by Ishaq b. Mansur on the authority of Jabir with another chain of transmitters. I heard Abu Dharr narrating it from the Apostle may peace be upon him that he observed: Gabriel came to me and gave me the tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah without associating anything with Allah would enter Paradise.

Even if he committed adultery and theft. Yes , even if he committed adultery and theft. I came to the Apostle may peace be upon him and he was asleep with a white mantle over him. I again came, he was still asleep, I came again and he had awakened. I sat by his side and the Holy Prophet observed: There is none among the bondsmen who affirmed his faith in La illaha ill-Allah there is no God but Allah and died in this state and did not enter Paradise. Even if he committed adultery and theft? Yes even though he committed adultery and theft.

Th Holy Prophet repeated it three times and said for the fourth time: In defiance of Abu Dharr. Abu Dharr then went out and he repeated these words: It is narrated on the authority of Miqdad b. Aswad that he said.


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  8. Messenger of Allah, you just see here is a point: If I encountered a person amongst the infidels in the battlefield and he attacked me and struck me and cut off one of my hands with the sword. Then he in order to protect himself from me took shelter of a tree and said: I become Muslim for Allah's sake. Messenger of Allah, can I kill him after he had uttered this? Do not kill him. Messenger of Allah, he cut off my hand and uttered this after amputating it; should I then kill him?

    Don't kill him, for I you kill him, verily he would be in a position where you had been before killing him and verily you would be in a position where he had been before uttering kalima. The same hadith has been transmitted by the same chain of narrators. The hadith transmitted by Auza'i and Ibn Juraij contains these words: I embraced Islam for Allah's sake.

    I knelt down to kill him, that he said; There is no god but Allah. It is narrated by Miqdad, and he was an ally of B. Zuhra and was of those who participated in the Battle of Badr along with the Messenger of Allah, that he said: Here James considers and largely agrees with the criticism of Pascal's Wager that we either should not or are unable to believe or disbelieve at will. That is, James here seems to reject doxastic voluntarism , "the philosophical doctrine according to which people have voluntary control over their beliefs".

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    By which James means that it is only things we already disbelieve that we are unable to believe at will. However, instead of providing an argument for this thesis, James quickly ends this section by stating that he must still "indulge in a bit more of preliminary work". In section V, James makes a distinction between a skepticism about truth and its attainment and what he calls " dogmatism ": Concerning dogmatism, James states that it has two forms; that there is an " absolutist way " and an " empiricist way " of believing in truth.

    James ends section V by arguing that empiricists are really no more tentative about their beliefs and conclusions than the absolutists: When the Cliffords tell us how sinful it is to be Christians on such "insufficient evidence", insufficiency is really the last thing they have in mind.

    For them the evidence is absolutely sufficient, only it makes the other way. They believe so completely in an anti-Christian order of the universe that there is no living option: Christianity is a dead hypothesis from the start. James begins section VI with the following question: Shall we espouse and endorse it? James ends section VI by stressing what he finds to be the "great difference" merit of the empiricist way over the absolutist way: Not where it comes from but what it leads to is to decide. It matters not to an empiricist from what quarter a hypothesis may come to him: James begins section VII by stating that there is "one more point, small but important, and our preliminaries are done".

    However, James in fact gives in this section a crucial bit of argumentation:. One possible way of interpreting James' words here is to take him to be arguing that while we should avoid falsehood, it is no vice to err if we do so while pursuing truth. That is, James is steadfastly agreeing that we must withhold belief until we possess sufficient evidence when that evidence is forthcoming. Not to do so would be to wholly disregard the duty to avoid falsehood. However, as James is about to argue, where the truth of a belief only comes about after something is believed or where evidence regarding a belief's truth or falsity is only accessible to believers, the pursuit of truth seems to require us to believe upon insufficient evidence.

    Here James first identifies areas of belief where he holds that to believe without evidence would be unjustified: In scientific questions, this is almost always the case [ In section IX, James moves to investigate whether there are areas of belief where belief without evidence would be justified. James gives self-fulfilling beliefs as one example of such beliefs:. From examples like these, James concludes: And where faith in a fact can help create the fact, that would be an insane logic which should say that faith running ahead of scientific evidence is the "lowest kind of immorality" into which a thinking being can fall.

    James begins section X with the thesis that he takes himself to have already proven: Although James does not here explain the way in which the truth or evidence regarding religious belief depends upon our first having religious belief, he does argue that it is a part of the religious belief itself that its own truth or the evidence of its own truth depends upon our first believing it.

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    FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient
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    FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient
    FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient FAITH: The Imperative Ingredient
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